On September 27, 1991, President George H. W. Bush announced that the United States would withdraw virtually all tactical (non-strategic) U.S. nuclear forces to allow Russia to take similar actions, thereby reducing the risk of nuclear proliferation when the Soviet Union was dissolved. In particular, Bush said the United States would eliminate all of its nuclear artillery grenades and short-range missile warheads and remove all non-strategic nuclear warheads from surface ships, assault submarines and land navy aircraft. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev responded on 5 October to eliminate all nuclear artillery munitions, nuclear warheads for tactical missiles and nuclear landmines. He also promised to withdraw all Soviet tactical nuclear weapons from the navy. As part of these initiatives, the United States and Russia have reduced their non-strategic stockpiles by about 5,000 or 13,000 explosive warheads. However, important questions remain as to the implementation of Russian commitments by Russia and the current state of Russian tactical forces is highly uncertain.

The Ministry of Defense estimates that Russia has about 2,000 non-strategic nuclear weapons and that the number is increasing. The United States maintains several hundred non-strategic B61 gravity bombs for delivery by short-range combat aircraft. The CPPNM is the only legally binding international agreement that focuses on the physical protection of peacefully used nuclear materials. The Treaty of Tlatelolco prohibits Latin American states from acquiring, possessing, developing, experimenting, testing or using nuclear weapons and prohibits other countries from storing and using nuclear weapons in their territories. Home/Resources/International Nuclear Weapons Agreement The roots of this treaty can be said to be contained in the final document of the 2010 NPT Review Conference, which formally expressed for the first time ”deep concern about the disastrous humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons.” Subsequently, a group of countries began making joint statements on the humanitarian impact of nuclear weapons. In 2013, more than 100 governments joined the initiative and organized a series of conferences. The Geneva Conference of 1925 led, under the Geneva Protocol, to the prohibition of chemical weapons (as toxic gases) during the war. The Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, although ineffective, attempted to ”guarantee the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy.” [16] The SSA promises nuclear-weapon States not to use or threaten nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States. There is no contract or agreement to ban simulated testing, although investigations have raised serious concerns about the practice.

Virtual tests have the effect of decoupling the technology of an atomic bomb from reality – we can forget that it is a weapon of mass destruction that can make millions of humans and cause immense suffering. Simulated tests in a controlled scientific environment can also give the illusion that this technology is something we can control, an idea that is not possible if we observe a real explosion. 155 states participated in the Life Conference in 2014, including the United States and the United Kingdom. The conference ended with the historic promise made by the hosts to ”identify and follow effective measures to fill the legal vacuum in the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons.” On 7 December 2015, the UN General Assembly adopted this commitment in the form of Resolution 70/48.